The weight of a bell is one of its most distinguishing characteristics. However, because of the different units of measurement used in various countries and because of the different methods by which weights are estimated, there is often some degree of uncertainty about bell weights. The following treatise may not help you find out the exact weight of a particular bell, but it should help to clarify your understanding of what a particular reported weight means.

On this page, there are seven pre-formatted panels
which were developed for the printed version of __Carillons of the World__, as follows:

- Explanation of "bourdon code number" as used in the database
- Diagram of the relationships among different methods of indicating bell size/weight/pitch
- How to convert between kilograms and pounds, with or without the conversion tables which follow
- Conversion tables - kilograms to pounds avoirdupois
- How to convert between British and American methods of counting weight,
with or without the conversion tables which follow;

Conversion table - British cwt to net pounds (0 to 2 tons) - Conversion table - British cwt to net pounds (2 to 20 tons);

tons versus tonnes (American, British and metric) - How to convert between British system and kilograms;

Conversion table - British cwt to kilograms (0 to 1 ton)

On a separate page, there are illustrations of several bell weight tables that reflect the pattern weights used by various major American bellfoundries.

There used to be a convenient online mass conversion calculator which could be used to convert between different systems of measuring weight. However, it was limited in its capability to handle the British Imperial system, for which some of the tables below are well adapted. Another choice is our own online calculator for converting between different units of measure for the weights of bells.

Supplementary Information on Weights 1-Dec-03 Page 1 **************************************************************** | **************************************************************** * | * * EXPLANATION OF "BOURDON CODE NUMBER" | This method of numbering the bell notes permits a two-digit * * | number to reflect the entire range of practical tower bell * * A bourdon code number is used to give a general indication | weights. Using any other method would take 3 to 5 digits or * * of the weight of a tower bell instrument by reflecting the | characters. * * approximate pitch or note of the heaviest bell in it. | * * | A difference of 12 in code numbers always reflects a change * * The code table in the left column of page 1 of the Code | of one octave in pitch. Code "13" is "middle C", so a tower * * Interpretation section shows the relationship between code | bell instrument which has a C key connected to a bell of * * numbers and notes using approximate bell weights in kilo- | this pitch and weight is in concert pitch. * * grams. The following tables show other ways of looking at | * * the bourdon code numbers. | Code number "1" corresponds to the bourdon of the carillon * * | in Riverside Church, New York--the heaviest bell now in any * * Bourdon code number versus international pitch notation: | carillon in the world, and unlikely to be surpassed. The * * 1=c 13=c' 25=c" | few heavier tower bells which exist are either isolated * * 2=c#/d-flat 14=c#'/d-flat' 26=c#"/d-flat" | (as in Asian temples) or are used in ways which do not * * 3=d 15=d' 27=d" | correspond to the musical scale (as in Russian zvons). * * 4=d#/e-flat 16=d#'/e-flat' 28=d#"/e-flat" | Isolated bells of more than a few tons are listed in plain * * 5=e 17=e' 29=e" | language in the MIL under "Great Bells", and the enormous * * 6=f 18=f' 30=f" | bells in a few zvons are handled by the "+" mark described * * 7=f#/g-flat 19=f#'/g-flat' 31=f#"/g-flat" | on page 1 of the Code Interpretation section. * * 8=g 20=g' 32=g" | * * 9=g#/a-flat 21=g#'/a-flat' 33=g#"/a-flat" | On page 2 of this section is a diagram showing graphically * * 10=a 22=a' 34=a" | some of the relationships which have been presented in * * 11=a#/b-flat 23=a#'/b-flat' ... | tables and plain language above. * * 12=b 24=b' etc. | * * | The correspondence between weight and pitch is not exact. * * Bourdon code number versus European pitch notation: | The weights of bass bells of the same pitch can vary by as * * 1= c0 13= c1 25= c2 | much as 10%, and trebles by as much as 50%, depending on the * * 2= cis0/des0 14= cis1/des1 26= cis2/des2 | profiles used by the bellfounder. In this book, pitch is * * 3= d0 15= d1 27= d2 | more important than exact weight in determining the bourdon * * 4= dis0/es0 16= dis1/es1 28= dis2/es2 | code number to use in the CIL. * * 5= e0 17= e1 29= e2 | * * 6= f0 18= f1 30= f2 | Weights given in the last table in the opposite column and * * 7= fis0/ges0 19= fis1/ges1 31= fis2/ges2 | in the similar table on page 1 of the Code Interpretation * * 8= g0 20= g1 32= g2 | section are NOT equivalent, and should not be treated as * * 9= gis0/as0 21= gis1/as1 33= gis2/as2 | such. They are simply round numbers chosen to show a general * * 10= a0 22= a1 34= a2 | characteristic. For conversions among weight systems, see * * 11= ais0/bes0 23= ais1/bes1 ... | the tables and procedures on pages 3-7 of this section. They * * 12= b0 24= b1 etc. | show the relationships among the metric (SI), American and * * | British systems to varying degrees of accuracy. * * Bourdon code number versus approximate weight in pounds: | * * 1=C 42000 lb 13=C 5000 lb 25=C 600 lb | The difference between accuracy and precision often causes * * 2=C# 36000 lb 14=C# 4200 lb 26=C# 500 lb | confusion in the reporting of bell weights. Accuracy refers * * 3=D 31000 lb 15=D 3500 lb 27=D 420 lb | to the number of significant digits in a number; precision * * 4=D# 26000 lb 16=D# 2900 lb 28=D# 350 lb | refers to the value of the least digit used. If a weight is * * 5=E 21000 lb 17=E 2400 lb 29=E 300 lb | reported as 40,000 lbs, the precision is 1 pound (the unit of * * 6=F 17000 lb 18=F 2000 lb 30=F 250 lb | the rightmost zero), but the accuracy may be only 1 ton. If * * 7=F# 14000 lb 19=F# 1700 lb 31=F# 225 lb | that is the case, then it is less misleading to report the * * 8=G 12000 lb 20=G 1400 lb 32=G 200 lb | weight as 20 short tons. When integer fractions are used * * 9=G# 10000 lb 21=G# 1200 lb 33=G# 175 lb | (such as 1/2) there is often less confusion between accuracy * * 10=A 8500 lb 22=A 1000 lb 34=A 155 lb | and precision. * * 11=A# 7000 lb 23=A# 850 lb ... | * * 12=B 5900 lb 24=B 700 lb etc. | For further information, see under "Weights and Measures" in * * | the Encyclopedia Britannica. * * | * **************************************************************** | ****************************************************************

Supplementary Information on Weights 1-Dec-03 Page 2 *********************************************************************************************************************************** Diagram of the relationship among different methods of indicating bell size/weight/pitch Code 1 13 25 37 49 61 73 85 number | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Keyboard # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # image C D E F G A B c d e f g a b c d e f g a b c d e f g a b c d e f g a b c d e f g a b c d e f g a b c | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Octave c0 c1 c2 c3 c4 c5 c6 c7 | | | | | | | | Weight | | | | | | | | of C 20 tons 2.5 tons 600 lb 100 lb 20 lb 15 lb 12 lb 10 lb | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Frequency (Hz) | 220 | 440 | 880 | 1760 | 3520 | 7040 | 14080 | of "A" notes | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Harmonic series 1 2 ^ 3 4 5 6 7+ 8 9 10| 12 | | | | based on C | | | | | 11+ | | | | | | minor | | | | | | | | third | | | | | | Bourdon of | | Treble of Riverside Church, | | Kirk-in-the-Hills, New York City, | | Bloomfield Hills, New York, USA |<----------- range of a 4-octave instrument ---------->| Michigan, USA | in concert pitch | "middle C" top note on a piano on a piano (read one octave lower on most carillon music) EXPLANATIONS: The code numbering scheme is a free adaptation of one originally developed by carillon architect Frederick C. Mayer. That may be found in "Carillon Music & Singing Towers of the Old World and the New," by William Gorham Rice, Revised edition, following page 278c. The principal difference lies in the separation of two items of information which Mayer combined into one, namely the bourdon pitch and the number of missing bass semitones. The keyboard image is truncated at the bottom and extended two octaves at the top to fit the actual range of strike notes of existing carillon bells. The octave numbering system used above corresponds to the range of tuned tower bells, and differs somewhat from other commonly used systems. For example, piano tuners use International Pitch Notation (IPN), which designates the top C of a piano as "c8". Some piano players and composers use a "small/great" system in which the top note of a piano is c5, middle C is c1, next lower is "small c", then "great C", then "contra C", down to "sub-contra A". Ton weights in the lower octave are in short tons (2000 pounds per ton). All weights are approximate; actual weights for bells of the indicated pitches will vary depending on the bellfounder's choice of profile. Frequencies shown represent the "strike tone" of the bell (see Glossary). A lower frequency, the "hum tone", develops later, and is analogous to the fundamental pitch of a vibrating string, organ pipe, etc. The harmonic series shown above represents the overtones of a vibrating string with a fundamental pitch of c0. (The 7th and 11th notes of the series do not precisely fit into the 12-tone scale of Western music.) Overtones result from the laws of physics, and fall into place automatically when the fundamental pitch of a conventional vibrating body (string, pipe, etc.) is tuned. The partial tones of a bell depend on its internal profile, and do not fit the harmonic series except by accident or as the result of individual tuning by the bellfounder. Most modern bellfounders can tune the first five partial tones of a bell to match the first four notes of the harmonic series plus the minor third shown in the diagram. **********************************************************************************************************************************

Supplementary Information on Weights 1-Dec-03 Page 3 **************************************************************** | **************************************************************** * | * * The three tables on the following page relate weights in | Abbreviation style: Here "s" is used with "kg" or "lb" * * kilograms (abbreviated "kg") and those in pounds (abbrevi- | only for plurals in plain text, not with numeric values. * * ated "lb"). They are designed mainly to convert kilograms | * * to pounds, but can be used for the opposite conversion also. | * * | * * o To convert from kilograms to pounds, first drop (or | o To convert from pounds to kilograms, look in the table * * round) any fractional part. Then separate the value | bodies for your starting number, or for a pair of num- * * into thousands, hundreds, tens and units portions. | bers which bracket your starting number. Notice that * * (Example: 815 = 800 + 10 + 5) | numbers in the tables increase from left to right * * | across each row, and that the right end of one row is * * Next, read down the left column to find the row for the | less than the left end of the next one. * * most significant value. This may be in the first, | (Example: 4700 pounds lies between 4630 and 4850 in * * second or third table, depending on the magnitude. | the second row of the third table.) * * (Using the example above, 800 is the 8th row of the | * * second table.) | If you are in the first table, pick the value which is * * | closest to your starting value; if you are in the * * Then read across the top row of that table to find the | second or third table, pick the largest number which is * * column for the next lower value of kgs. | below the starting value. * * (Using the same example, 10 heads the second column of | (Example, continued: pick 4630) * * the second table.) | * * | Add together the kg values at the left end of the row * * At the intersection of this column and row find the net | and the top of the column for the number you found. * * lbs equivalent to the total number of kgs. | (Example, continued: 2000 + 100 = 2100) * * (In the example, this is 1785.7 lb for 810 kg.) | * * | If you started in the first table, you are finished. * * If you began in the first table, you are now done. | If you started in the second or third table, then * * | subtract the value you found in the table from your * * If you began in the second table, and you had a non-zero | starting value, use the same process to look up the * * units value, then use row 0 of the first table to find | remainder in the first table, and add the results * * its equivalent. Add the two results together. | together. * * (In the example, the leftover units are 5; in the first | (Example, continued: 4700 - 4630 = 70, which lies * * table, row 0 column 5 yields 11.0; adding the two values, | between 68.3 and 70.5 in the fourth row of the first * * 1785.7 + 11.0 = 1796.7 lb. You might wish to round this | table. Since 70 is closer to 70.5 than to 68.3, * * to 1797 pounds; for some purposes you might instead | pick 70.5; then the row and column values are 30 and 2. * * choose to use either 1795 or 1800 pounds.) | 30 + 2 = 32; 2100 + 32 = 2132; so 4700 lb = 2132 kg, * * | which could be rounded to 2130 kg.) * * If you began in the third table, you will have both tens | * * and units values remaining. If either is non-zero, then | * * use these two in the first table in a similar way. | NOTE: Tables are accurate and precise to the last * * (Example: 2815 = 2000 + 800 + 10 + 5; | digit shown. Accuracy of your result will be no * * from the third table, 2000 and 800 yield 6173; | greater than the accuracy of the figure with which * * from the first table, 10 and 5 yield 33.1; | you began. * * then 6173 + 33 = 6206, so 2815 kg = 6206 lb.) | * * | * * o To convert kilograms to pounds mentally, multiply by 2 | o To convert pounds to kilograms mentally, divide by 2, * * and add 10%. These two steps can be done in either | subtract 10%, and add back 1%. * * order, and are easiest to do with round numbers. | Accuracy is between two and three digits. * * Accuracy is between two and three digits. | (Example: given 1800 lb, 1800 ÷ 2 = 900; * * (Example: for 300 kg, 2 x 300 = 600; 10% of 600 is | 900 - 90 + 9 = 819; so 1800 lbs = 819 kg, which could * * 60; 600 + 60 = 660; so 300 kg = 660 lb.) | be rounded to 820 kg.) * * | * * o If using a calculator, use 2.20462 as the multiplier to | o If using a calculator, use 0.453592 as the multiplier * * preserve up to 6 digits of accuracy. | to preserve up to 6 digits of accuracy. * * | * * | * **************************************************************** | ****************************************************************

Supplementary Information on Weights 1-Dec-03 Page 4 ************************************************************************************************************ * * * Kilograms to pounds avoirdupois * * * * \kg: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * * kg \ ===== ===== ===== ===== ===== ===== ===== ===== ===== ===== * * 0 0.0 2.2 4.4 6.6 8.8 11.0 13.2 15.4 17.6 19.8 * * 10 22.0 24.3 26.5 28.7 30.9 33.1 35.3 37.5 39.7 41.9 * * 20 44.1 46.3 48.5 50.7 52.9 55.1 57.3 59.5 61.7 63.9 * * 30 66.1 68.3 70.5 72.8 75.0 77.2 79.4 81.6 83.8 86.0 * * 40 88.2 90.4 92.6 94.8 97.0 99.2 101.4 103.6 105.8 108.0 * * 50 110.2 112.4 114.6 116.8 119.0 121.3 123.5 125.7 127.9 130.1 * * 60 132.3 134.5 136.7 138.9 141.1 143.3 145.5 147.7 149.9 152.1 * * 70 154.3 156.5 158.7 160.9 163.1 165.3 167.6 169.8 172.0 174.2 * * 80 176.4 178.6 180.8 183.0 185.2 187.4 189.6 191.8 194.0 196.2 * * 90 198.4 200.6 202.8 205.0 207.2 209.4 211.6 213.8 216.1 218.3 * * 100 220.5 222.7 224.9 227.1 229.3 231.5 233.7 235.9 238.1 240.3 * * * * \kg: 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 * * kg \ ====== ====== ====== ====== ====== ====== ====== ====== ====== ====== * * 100 220.5 242.5 264.6 286.6 308.6 330.7 352.7 374.8 396.8 418.9 * * 200 440.9 463.0 485.0 507.1 529.1 551.2 573.2 595.2 617.3 639.3 * * 300 661.4 683.4 705.5 727.5 749.6 771.6 793.7 815.7 837.8 859.8 * * 400 881.8 903.9 925.9 948.0 970.0 992.1 1014.1 1036.2 1058.2 1080.3 * * 500 1102.3 1124.4 1146.4 1168.4 1190.5 1212.5 1234.6 1256.6 1278.7 1300.7 * * 600 1322.8 1344.8 1366.9 1388.9 1411.0 1433.0 1455.0 1477.1 1499.1 1521.2 * * 700 1543.2 1565.3 1587.3 1609.4 1631.4 1653.5 1675.5 1697.6 1719.6 1741.6 * * 800 1763.7 1785.7 1807.8 1829.8 1851.9 1873.9 1896.0 1918.0 1940.1 1962.1 * * 900 1984.2 2006.2 2028.3 2050.3 2072.3 2094.4 2116.4 2138.5 2160.5 2182.6 * * 1000 2204.6 2226.7 2248.7 2270.8 2292.8 2314.9 2336.9 2358.9 2381.0 2403.0 * * *Approximate * * \kg: 0* 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 metric tons * * kg \ ===== ===== ===== ===== ===== ===== ===== ===== ===== ===== =========== * * 1000 2205 2425 2646 2866 3086 3307 3527 3748 3968 4189 1 * * 2000 4409 4630 4850 5071 5291 5512 5732 5952 6173 6393 2 * * 3000 6614 6834 7055 7275 7496 7716 7937 8157 8378 8598 3 * * 4000 8818 9039 9259 9480 9700 9921 10141 10362 10582 10803 4 * * 5000 11023 11244 11464 11684 11905 12125 12346 12566 12787 13007 5 * * 6000 13228 13448 13669 13889 14110 14330 14550 14771 14991 15212 6 * * 7000 15432 15653 15873 16094 16314 16535 16755 16976 17196 17416 7 * * 8000 17637 17857 18078 18298 18519 18739 18960 19180 19401 19621 8 * * 9000 19842 20062 20283 20503 20723 20944 21164 21385 21605 21826 9 * * 10000 22046 22267 22487 22708 22928 23149 23369 23589 23810 24030 10 * * 11000 24251 24471 24692 24912 25133 25353 25574 25794 26015 26235 11 * * 12000 26455 26676 26896 27117 27337 27558 27778 27999 28219 28440 12 * * 13000 28660 28881 29101 29321 29542 29762 29983 30203 30424 30644 13 * * 14000 30865 31085 31306 31526 31747 31967 32187 32408 32628 32849 14 * * 15000 33069 33290 33510 33731 33951 34172 34392 34613 34833 35053 15 * * 16000 35274 35494 35715 35935 36156 36376 36597 36817 37038 37258 16 * * 17000 37479 37699 37919 38140 38360 38581 38801 39022 39242 39463 17 * * 18000 39683 39904 40124 40345 40565 40785 41006 41226 41447 41667 18 * * 19000 41888 42108 42329 42549 42770 42990 43211 43431 43651 43872 19 * * 20000 44092 44313 44533 44754 44974 45195 45415 45636 45856 46077 20 * * (see * * page 6) * * * * * ************************************************************************************************************

Supplementary Information on Weights 1-Dec-03 Page 5 **************************************************************** | **************************************************************** * | * * The tables in the opposite column and on the following page | British (cwt-qtr) to net pounds (up to 2 tons) * * relate British and American methods of counting weight. In | * * both methods, the unit of weight is the avoirdupois pound, | \qtr: 0 1 2 3 * * which is abbreviated "lb" (singular) or "lbs" (plural). The | cwt \ ===== ===== ===== ===== * * difference between the methods lies in the way that pounds | 0 0 28 56 84 * * are counted. | 1 112 140 168 196 * * | 2 224 252 280 308 * * The British method, which is the standard used for change- | 3 336 364 392 420 * * ringing bells, is based on the [long] hundredweight, which is | 4 448 476 504 532 * * 112 lbs. It is abbreviated "cwt" whether singular or plural. | 5 560 588 616 644 * * | 6 672 700 728 756 * * o One fourth of a hundredweight is a quarter. It is | 7 784 812 840 868 * * abbreviated "qtr" or "qr" (singular) or "qrs" (plural). | 8 896 924 952 980 * * | 9 1008 1036 1064 1092 * * o Twenty cwt is a ton (not abbreviated). | 10 1120 1148 1176 1204 * * | 11 1232 1260 1288 1316 * * (Another British counter, the stone, is one-eighth cwt, or | 12 1344 1372 1400 1428 * * 14 lbs; it is commonly used for weighing people, but not | 13 1456 1484 1512 1540 * * bells.) | 14 1568 1596 1624 1652 * * | 15 1680 1708 1736 1764 * * When any one of these counters is used by itself, its abbre- | 16 1792 1820 1848 1876 * * viation is written with the number (for example, 7 cwt). | 17 1904 1932 1960 1988 * * When a weight is expressed to the nearest qtr, the standard | 18 2016 2044 2072 2100 * * fractions are used. (Examples: 2¼ cwt; 3 tons 7½ cwt). | 19 2128 2156 2184 2212 * * However, when a weight is expressed to the nearest pound, no | 20 2240* 2268 2296 2324 * 1 British * * abbreviations are used; instead, the numbers are separated | 21 2352 2380 2408 2436 ton * * by dashes in the order cwt-qtr-lbs or tons-cwt-qtr-lbs. For | 22 2464 2492 2520 2548 * * example, 17-3-12 represents 2000 lbs. | 23 2576 2604 2632 2660 * * | 24 2688 2716 2744 2772 * * | 25 2800 2828 2856 2884 * * Using the table at right: | 26 2912 2940 2968 2996 * * | 27 3024 3052 3080 3108 * * o To convert from British to American, read down the left | 28 3136 3164 3192 3220 * * column to find the row for the number of cwt, then read | 29 3248 3276 3304 3332 * * across the top row to find the column for the number of | 30 3360 3388 3416 3444 * * qtrs. At the intersection of this column and row find | 31 3472 3500 3528 3556 * * the net pounds equivalent to cwt-qtr; then add the | 32 3584 3612 3640 3668 * * remaining lbs to find find the total. | 33 3696 3724 3752 3780 * * For example, a British weight of 1-2-3 is equal to an | 34 3808 3836 3864 3892 * * American weight of 171 pounds. | 35 3920 3948 3976 4004 * * (In row 1, column 2 yields 168; add 3 to obtain 171.) | 36 4032 4060 4088 4116 * * | 37 4144 4172 4200 4228 * * o To convert from American to British, search the body of | 38 4256 4284 4312 4340 * * the table for the largest number which does not exceed | 39 4368 4396 4424 4452 * * the American weight given. The number at the left end | 40 4480* 4508 4536 4564 * 2 British * * of that row is the cwts, and the number at the top of | Imperial * * that column is the qtrs. The difference between the | tons * * number given and the number found is the lbs. | For weights exceeding this table, see next page. * * | * * For example, an American weight of 123 lbs is 1-0-11 in | British Imperial units: * * the British method of counting. | ton = 20 cwt (2240 lb) * * (The closest number in the table body is 112, which is | cwt = hundredweight (112 lb) * * in row 1, column 0; then 123 minus 112 equals 11.) | qtr = quarter (28 lb) * * | lbs = pounds * * | * **************************************************************** | ****************************************************************

Supplementary Information on Weights 1-Dec-03 Page 6 ********************************************************************************************************* * * * British (cwt) to net pounds * * * * \cwt: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 British tons * * cwt \ ===== ===== ===== ===== ===== ===== ===== ===== ===== ===== ============ * * 40 4480 4592 4704 4816 4928 5040 5152 5264 5376 5488 2 * * 50 5600 5712 5824 5936 6048 6160 6272 6384 6496 6608 2 1/2 * * 60 6720 6832 6944 7056 7168 7280 7392 7504 7616 7728 3 * * 70 7840 7952 8064 8176 8288 8400 8512 8624 8736 8848 3 1/2 * * 80 8960 9072 9184 9296 9408 9520 9632 9744 9856 9968 4 * * 90 10080 10192 10304 10416 10528 10640 10752 10864 10976 11088 4 1/2 * * 100 11200 11312 11424 11536 11648 11760 11872 11984 12096 12208 5 * * 110 12320 12432 12544 12656 12768 12880 12992 13104 13216 13328 5 1/2 * * 120 13440 13552 13664 13776 13888 14000 14112 14224 14336 14448 6 * * 130 14560 14672 14784 14896 15008 15120 15232 15344 15456 15568 6 1/2 * * 140 15680 15792 15904 16016 16128 16240 16352 16464 16576 16688 7 * * 150 16800 16912 17024 17136 17248 17360 17472 17584 17696 17808 7 1/2 * * 160 17920 18032 18144 18256 18368 18480 18592 18704 18816 18928 8 * * 170 19040 19152 19264 19376 19488 19600 19712 19824 19936 20048 8 1/2 * * 180 20160 20272 20384 20496 20608 20720 20832 20944 21056 21168 9 * * 190 21280 21392 21504 21616 21728 21840 21952 22064 22176 22288 9 1/2 * * 200 22400* 22512 22624 22736 22848 22960 23072 23184 23296 23408 10 * * 210 23520 23632 23744 23856 23968 24080 24192 24304 24416 24528 10 1/2 * * 220 24640 24752 24864 24976 25088 25200 25312 25424 25536 25648 11 * * 230 25760 25872 25984 26096 26208 26320 26432 26544 26656 26768 11 1/2 * * 240 26880 26992 27104 27216 27328 27440 27552 27664 27776 27888 12 * * 250 28000 28112 28224 28336 28448 28560 28672 28784 28896 29008 12 1/2 * * 260 29120 29232 29344 29456 29568 29680 29792 29904 30016 30128 13 * * 270 30240 30352 30464 30576 30688 30800 30912 31024 31136 31248 13 1/2 * * 280 31360 31472 31584 31696 31808 31920 32032 32144 32256 32368 14 * * 290 32480 32592 32704 32816 32928 33040 33152 33264 33376 33488 14 1/2 * * 300 33600 33712 33824 33936 34048 34160 34272 34384 34496 34608 15 * * 310 34720 34832 34944 35056 35168 35280 35392 35504 35616 35728 15 1/2 * * 320 35840 35952 36064 36176 36288 36400 36512 36624 36736 36848 16 * * 330 36960 37072 37184 37296 37408 37520 37632 37744 37856 37968 16 1/2 * * 340 38080 38192 38304 38416 38528 38640 38752 38864 38976 39088 17 * * 350 39200 39312 39424 39536 39648 39760 39872 39984 40096 40208 17 1/2 * * 360 40320 40432 40544 40656 40768 40880 40992 41104 41216 41328 18 * * 370 41440 41552 41664 41776 41888 42000 42112 42224 42336 42448 18 1/2 * * 380 42560 42672 42784 42896 43008 43120 43232 43344 43456 43568 19 * * 390 43680 43792 43904 44016 44128 44240 44352 44464 44576 44688 19 1/2 * * 400 44800* 44912 45024 45136 45248 45360 45472 45584 45696 45808 20 * * * * - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - * * * * TONS & TONNES: * * * * 2000 lbs = 1 American [short] ton * * * * 2205 lbs = 1000 kg = 1 metric ton = 1 tonne - \ * * \ * * 2240 lbs = 1 American long ton --- > Note that these three kinds of "ton" * * / differ by less than 2%. * * 2240 lbs = 1 British Imperial ton - / * * * * * *********************************************************************************************************

Supplementary Information on Weights 1-Dec-03 Page 7 **************************************************************** | **************************************************************** * | * * The tables in the opposite column relate British and metric | * * methods of measuring weight, both of which have been intro- | British (cwt-qtr-lbs) to kilograms (kgs) * * duced above in relationship to pounds avoirdupois. | * * | \qrs: 0 1 2 3 \ kg * * | cwt \ ====== ====== ====== ====== lb \ === * * o To convert from British to metric, first read down the | 0 0.0 12.7 25.4 38.1 0 0.0 * * left column of the large table to find the row for the | 1 50.8 63.5 76.2 88.9 1 0.5 * * number of cwts, then read across the top row of the same | 2 101.6 114.3 127.0 139.7 2 0.9 * * table to find the column for the number of qtrs. At the | 3 152.4 165.1 177.8 190.5 3 1.4 * * intersection of this row and column find the kgs equiva- | 4 203.2 215.9 228.6 241.3 4 1.8 * * lent to cwt-qtr. Next, use the small table to find the | 5 254.0 266.7 279.4 292.1 5 2.3 * * kgs equivalent to the lbs. Finally, add the two results | 6 304.8 317.5 330.2 342.9 6 2.7 * * together. | 7 355.6 368.3 381.0 393.7 7 3.2 * * | 8 406.4 419.1 431.8 444.5 8 3.6 * * Example: given a British weight of 1-2-3, | 9 457.2 469.9 482.6 495.3 9 4.1 * * in row 1, column 2 of the large table find 76.2; | 10 508.0 520.7 533.4 546.1 10 4.5 * * in the small table find 1.4 opposite 3 lb; | 11 558.8 571.5 584.2 596.9 11 5.0 * * 76.2 + 1.4 = 77.6 kg total. This would probably be | 12 609.6 622.3 635.0 647.7 12 5.5 * * rounded to 78 kg. | 13 660.4 673.1 685.8 698.5 13 5.9 * * | 14 711.2 723.9 736.6 749.3 14 6.4 * * | 15 762.0 774.7 787.4 800.1 15 6.8 * * o To convert from metric to British, search the body of | 16 812.8 825.5 838.2 850.9 16 7.3 * * the large table for the largest number which does not | 17 863.6 876.3 889.0 901.7 17 7.7 * * exceed the metric weight given. The number at the left | 18 914.4 927.1 939.8 952.5 18 8.2 * * end of that row is the cwts, and the number at the top | 19 965.2 977.9 990.6 1003.3 19 8.6 * * of that column is the qtrs. Subtract the number found | 20 1016.0 1028.7 1041.4 1054.1 20 9.1 * * in the table from the starting number; then find this | 21 1066.8 1079.5 1092.2 1105.0 21 9.5 * * remainder (or nearest value) in the second column of the | 22 1117.7 1130.4 1143.1 1155.8 22 10.0 * * small table and read the lbs equivalent from the first | 23 1168.5 1181.2 1193.9 1206.6 23 10.5 * * column of that table. | 24 1219.3 1232.0 1244.7 1257.4 24 10.9 * * | 25 1270.1 1282.8 1295.5 1308.2 25 11.4 * * Example: given a metric weight of 255 kg, | 26 1320.9 1333.6 1346.3 1359.0 26 11.8 * * in row 5 of the large table, 255 lies between 254.0 | 27 1371.7 1384.4 1397.1 1409.8 27 12.3 * * and 266.7; row 5 represents 5 cwt, and column 0 repre- | 28 1422.5 1435.2 1447.9 1460.6 28 12.7 * * sents 0 qtr. | 29 1473.3 1486.0 1498.7 1511.4 * * Subtracting 254.0 from 255 gives 1.0; in the small | 30 1524.1 1536.8 1549.5 1562.2 * * table, this is closer to 0.9 than to 1.4, so use 2 lb. | 31 1574.9 1587.6 1600.3 1613.0 * * Then 255 kg = 5-0-2 (or 5 cwt 2 lbs) in British | 32 1625.7 1638.4 1651.1 1663.8 * * terminology. | 33 1676.5 1689.2 1701.9 1714.6 * * | 34 1727.3 1740.0 1752.7 1765.4 * * | 35 1778.1 1790.8 1803.5 1816.2 * * | 36 1828.9 1841.6 1854.3 1867.0 * * | 37 1879.7 1892.4 1905.1 1917.8 * * | 38 1930.5 1943.2 1955.9 1968.6 * * | 39 1981.3 1994.0 2006.7 2019.4 * * | 40 2032.1 2044.8 2057.5 2070.2 * * | * * | For weights exceeding this table, first convert to * * | total pounds using the procedure on page 5 of this * * | section; then convert pounds to kilograms using the * * | procedure on page 3 of this section. * * | * * | * * | * * | (END.)* **************************************************************** | ****************************************************************

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